Data from the recently published 2019-2020 Civil Court Survey reveals a 7% year-over-year decline in family law cases in Canada. This decrease represents the largest decline in family law cases in 5 years. The data is for the period from April 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020 and, in large part, does not reflect the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the justice system, including from court closures and stay-at-home orders. It is anticipated that there will be an even greater decline in family law cases in the 2020-2021 Civil Court Survey.
Of the more than 228,000 active family law cases during the 2019-2020 period, 47% were divorce cases. Of this number, almost three quarters involved requests for a divorce judgement to legally end a marriage; the remainder involved matters related to custody, access, and support. Notably, the data also shows that custody and access family law court cases during this period reported more activity than non-family cases, which the report on the data suggests may be “an indication of the amount of time and court resources they require”.
The Juristat report on family law cases in civil courts for 2019-2020 and the 2019-2020 Civil Court Survey data are available on the Statistics Canada website here: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/210628/dq210628d-eng.htm.
« Profil des causes de droit de la famille au Canada, 2019-2020 » est disponible en français ici : https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/daily-quotidien/210628/dq210628d-fra.htm.
A new report by the Advocacy Centre for Tenants Ontario (ACTO) examines how the move from in-person to online hearings is impacting low-income tenants across Ontario. “Digital Evictions: The Landlord and Tenant Board’s Experiment in Online Hearings” discusses the challenges and consequences for tenants who do not have access to reliable internet and phone services for their hearings. The report also indicates that the shift to online hearings may have disproportionate adverse impacts for rural and remote households, tenants whose first language is not English, people with mental health issues, and people who are illiterate or innumerate.
The ACTO report explores data from several sources, including surveys of digital hearings that were carried out across Ontario from March to May, 2021 and reveals several drawbacks to participation in a virtual hearing by video or phone. The report also highlights ACTO’s concern that the digital first approach to hearings will continue post pandemic. “Digital Evictions: The Landlord and Tenant Board’s Experiment in Online Hearings” is available on the ACTO website here: https://www.acto.ca/production/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/Digital-Evictions-ACTO.pdf.
“The Right to be Heard: The Future of Advocacy in Canada” is a new report by the Advocates’ Society that discusses the future of oral advocacy in Canada’s justice system. The report also examines the history behind the right to be heard, considerations for the mode of hearing, and the impacts that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the justice system.
The Right to be Heard report is the culmination of months of research and consultations with judges, advocates in different practice areas, justice system participants, advocacy groups and others. This initative was led by the Modern Advocacy Task Force, which was established in spring 2020 “to make recommendations with respect to the future of oral advocacy in the Canadian justice system”.
This Final Report of the Modern Advocacy Task Force recognizes improvements made possible by modern technology during the pandemic but cautions that such changes to the justice system “should not be mistaken as a panacea for the grave challenges of access to justice, nor as an adequate replacement for in-person justice in all, or even most, cases.”
According to the report, there are four core principles that lay the foundation for the Task Force’s recommendations:
- The open court principle;
- The imperative of access to justice;
- The integrity of the court process; and
- The principle of proportionality
In discussing the significance of the report, former Chief Justice of Canada and member of the Modern Advocacy Advisory Group, The Right Honourable Beverley McLachlin noted that the report “offers a timely examination of the fundamental role of court advocacy in securing justice and how it can be preserved in a digital world.”
“The Right to be Heard: The Future of Advocacy in Canada”, published by the Advocates’ Society, is available here: https://s3.amazonaws.com/tld-documents.llnassets.com/0027000/27521/the_right_to_be_heard_the_future_of_advocacy_in_canada_digital.pdf.
The Canadian Judicial Council (CJC) has released an updated version of Ethical Principles for Judges / Principes de déontologie judiciare. For more than twenty years, this publication has provided guidance on a range of questions within the judicial community.
While this new publication maintains a format similar to the 1998 volume, it raises questions about present day subjects such as the digital literacy of judges and addresses a range of important issues such as the need to be alert to “the history, experience and circumstances of Canada’s Indigenous peoples, and to the diversity of cultures and communities that make up this country”. In discussing the importance of this new iteration of Ethical Principles for Judges, Chief Justice of Canada and Canadian Judicial Council Chairperson, the Right Honourable Richard Wagner, noted that, “[t]hese revised principles explore new and emerging issues relevant to our modern times”.
Ethical Principles for Judges includes sections on:
- Judicial Independence;
- Integrity and Respect;
- Diligence and Competence;
- Equality; and
Ethical Principles for Judges / Principes de déontologie judiciare, published by the Canadian Judicial Council, is available in English and French here: https://cjc-ccm.ca/sites/default/files/documents/2021/CJC_20-301_Ethical-Principles_Bilingual%20FINAL.pdf.
The British Columbia Law Institute’s (BCLI’s) Child Protection Project Committee has published two reports aimed at: (i) providing recommendations for reforms to the child protection framework; and (ii) reviewing legislation related to youth aging into the community.
The “Report on Modernizing the Child, Family and Community Service Act” provides an extensive review of British Columbia’s child protection statute, offering 39 recommendations for reform and draft sample legislation. The “Study Paper on Youth Aging into the Community” provides guidance on transition planning, relationship-based support, education support, and housing support for young people who were under care of the child protection system and have reached the age of maturity. The “Report on Modernizing the Child, Family and Community Service Act” and the “Study Paper on Youth Aging in the Community” bring the work of the Child Protection Project Committee to a close.
“Report on Modernizing the Child, Family and Community Service Act” is available on the BCLI website here: https://www.bcli.org/publication/92-report-on-modernizing-the-child-family-and-community-service-act.
“Study Paper on Youth Aging into the Community” published by the British Columbia Law Institute is available here: https://www.bcli.org/publication/study-paper-on-youth-aging-into-the-community.
A report by the former National Director of Access to Justice for the national Ministry of Justice of Argentina is providing insight into the development of a network of people-centered justice service centers across Argentina. “Putting People at the Center: A Case Study on Access to Justice Centers” offers a discussion of the objectives, strategic principles and operational tools guiding this national access to justice initiative in Argentina.
The report highlights external, political-institutional, and procedural considerations for designing a large-scale access to justice program. It also details the challenges and benefits of implementing a large-scale public program devoted to people-centered justice, and provides an experiential perspective that can serve as a guidepost for similar initiatives.
“Putting People at the Center: A Case Study on Access to Justice Centers in Argentina” by Gustavo Maurino is available in English here: https://530cfd94-d934-468b-a1c7-c67a84734064.filesusr.com/ugd/6c192f_2bfcbb9af90d423083933789ab4b433c.pdf.
More information about this initiative is available from this article by the Pathfinders for Peaceful, Just and Inclusive Societies: https://medium.com/sdg16plus/people-centered-justice-matters-a-case-study-in-argentina-df82e5e268f9 .
“Immigration in the Time of COVID-19: Issues and Challenges” is a new report from the Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration (CIMM). The report explores the impacts of the pandemic on Canada’s immigration system, with particular emphasis on family reunification, the parent and grandparent program, and impacts for international students and foreign nationals with expired documents. The parliamentary committee report includes 38 recommendations for consideration by the House of Commons, including:
- A fully digitized system that also maintains the option for paper applications (Recommendation 1);
- Increasing financial supports for settlement services to facilitate digital literacy and access to digital tools (Recommendation 3);
- Implementing measures to permit permanent residents with expired permanent resident cards who have faced renewal issues because of the pandemic to return to Canada (Recommendation 4); and,
- Prioritizing the processing of family reunification applications in cases where family members are protected persons (Recommendation 8).
The CIMM Committee report is available in English here: https://www.ourcommons.ca/DocumentViewer/en/43-2/CIMM/report-5/. The report is available in French here: https://www.noscommunes.ca/DocumentViewer/fr/43-2/CIMM/rapport-5.
The national Action Committee on Access to Justice in Civil and Family Matters has released its annual progress report on the Justice Development Goals. The report offers insights on developments in nine areas deemed essential for better access to justice in Canada. The nine areas are based on the goals identified in the Action Committee’s 2013 “A Roadmap for Change” report which highlighted the need to:
- Refocus the justice system to reflect and address everyday legal problems
- Make essential legal services available to everyone
- Make courts and tribunals fully accessible multi-service centres for public dispute resolution
- Make coordinated and appropriate multidisciplinary family services easily accessible
- Create local and national access to justice implementation mechanisms
- Promote a sustainable, accessible and integrated justice agenda through legal education
- Enhance the innovation capacity of the civil and family justice system
- Support access to justice to promote evidence-based policy making
- Promote coherent, integrated and sustained funding strategies
This year’s Action Committee report also includes a section on the justice sector’s responses to the COVID-19 pandemic.
“Canada’s Justice Development Goals 2020: Challenge and Change” is available in English here: http://www.justicedevelopmentgoals.ca/sites/default/files/jdgreport2020challengechange.pdf.
Pour télécharger << Objectifs de développement en matière de justice du Canada de 2020 : Défis et changements >> cliquez ici : http://www.justicedevelopmentgoals.ca/sites/default/files/odjrapport2020defichangements.pdf.
The Canadian Judicial Council (CJC) has announced the publication of a new Civil Law Handbook, Criminal Law Handbook and Family Law Handbook for self-represented litigants. According to a May 5th press release, “[t]he goal of the handbooks is to help those who are not represented by legal counsel to better prepare for court proceedings, and to provide judges with tools they can recommend to such persons to help them access the courts.”
The handbooks were developed in conjunction with the Judicial Education Society of British Columbia and provide useful information on how to obtain electronic access to statutes, regulations and forms.
The three new handbooks are available on the CJC website in English here: https://cjc-ccm.ca/en/what-we-do/initiatives/representing-yourself-court and in French here: https://cjc-ccm.ca/fr/ce-que-nous-faisons/initiatives/se-representer-soi-meme-devant-un-tribunal.
“Regulating AI: Critical Issues and Choices” is the second in a series of papers by the Law Commission of Ontario (LCO) that seeks to examine the use of artificial intelligence (AI), automated decision-making (ADM) and algorithms in Canada’s justice system. The focus of this paper is on regulatory frameworks for AI and ADM systems that support decision-making. Understanding the implications of AI and ADM systems and how to regulate them has become increasingly important in Canada and throughout the world. This paper contemplates a range of important questions surrounding the regulation of these systems, including: how AI and ADM should be defined for regulatory purposes; how and when governments should be required to disclose their use of AI and ADM; what role “ethical AI” might play in government regulation of AI and ADM; and whether government regulation of AI and ADM should promote innovation and/or human rights.
“Regulating AI: Critical Issues and Choices” by Nye Thomas, Erin Chochla and Susie Lindsay is available on the Law Commission of Ontario’s website here: https://www.lco-cdo.org/en/the-lco-releases-a-new-report-regulating-ai-critical-issues-and-choices/.